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Posts Tagged ‘summer’

Sunscreen

I’d like to make my annual plea for the liberal use of sunscreen to protect all of us — young and old — from the damaging effects of the sun.  Please understand that the “healthy” bronze tan color that many people seek is actually how the skin demonstrates that it has been damaged by the sun.

The sun produces two types of invisible light. One is ultraviolet A (UVA), which is the ray that produces a tan but causes skin damage and aging, (think wrinkles and “old age” skin spots). The other is ultraviolet B (UVB), which causes the uncomfortable sunburn.

Both types can cause skin cancer, especially the deadly melanoma. This year in the U.S. there will be approximately 76,000 new cases of melanoma with some 9,000 deaths. These statistics can be reduced significantly by protecting our skin from the sun.

The damaging rays from the sun are most intense between the hours of 10 AM and 4 PM.

These are my suggestions:

  • Always start the summer season with a new fresh tube of sunscreen; price has nothing to do with performance.
  • Use a sunscreen with an SFP rating of at least 30. Higher than 50 is probably not necessary.
  • A sunscreen should be labeled “broad spectrum” protecting against both UVA and UVB and be water/sweat resistant.
  • Use at least 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) for your entire body, and apply liberally to the face, ears, and neck.
  • Don’t overlook applying to feet, back of neck, and bald spots.
  •  Apply at least 20 minutes before sun exposure and every 2 hours thereafter and more frequently if swimming or sweating profusely.
  • Avoid using sunscreen sprays on children as they can inhale the chemical ingredients. Use the lotion form only.
  • Whenever possible, wear light colored tight knit clothing and brimmed hats while in the sun.
  • Avoid tanning salons where damage — similar to the effects of the sun — can be done to the skin.

A sunscreen that has always been a favorite of mine, and one just recently highly recommended by Consumer Reports Magazine, is a brand called “NO-AD.” This product comes with an SPF of either 30 or 45, and is one of the cheapest sun screen products on the shelves.

Enjoy your outdoor summer activities, but do yourselves and especially your children a favor, and protect your/their skin from both damage and cancer by properly using a good sunscreen product.

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Kids

I’d like to talk about several common activities involving our children, how to ensure safety and to avoid unnecessary injury.

Playground injuries, mostly from falls, account for over 200,000 emergency room visits per year. The highest risk group is five to nine years of age. Young children need close adult supervision.

Make sure that underneath the equipment there is an adequate shock-absorbing material, such as chipped wood or any type of rubber product. Also, one needs to inspect the equipment to ensure that it is in good repair.

Bicycling (300,000 emergency visits a year) and skateboarding (30,000 visits) are the leading cause of head injury accidents in children. Proper safety for these activities includes adult supervision of younger children, routine bicycle maintenance, and mandatory use of head-protective helmets. These helmets must be proper to the activity and they must fit appropriately, but most importantly they must be worn!

Swimming accidents leading to drowning, and are the second leading cause of injury death among children 14 years and younger. All pools must be adequately fenced in and have properly functioning gates. Injury can be avoided by not running around the pool, not jumping onto floating objects, and proper use of a diving board. Again, adult supervision is paramount in preventing swim-related activities.

In 1971, trampoline injuries led to the NCAA eliminating the trampoline from sports competitions. I’m sure it’s also why we don’t see this event in the Olympics.

Trampoline injuries cause 80,000 emergency visits per year, for children age five and younger. If you own a trampoline, do not allow a smaller child to be on a trampoline with a larger child, as the smaller one is 14 times more likely to be injured.

In fact, one should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and not allow more than one person on a trampoline at a time. Safety netting around the trampoline is essential to protect a child but is not foolproof to prevent injuries.

As with all the above activities, adult supervision is mandatory.

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Summer-S

Over the course of my emergency/urgent care career I’ve dealt with many different injuries and illnesses seen commonly during the summer months. I’d like to share some of my thoughts on making this a very safe summer for everyone.

Sunscreen – Almost everyone who spends time out in the sun must wear sunscreen to block the harmful, damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays on our sensitive skin. Use a sunscreen that offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays and has an SPF rating of at least 30. Apply it liberally and often (at least every two hours). Parents, protect your kids’ precious skin.

Insects – Beware of the many summer bugs lurking out there. For mosquito protection, use a repellant that contains DEET, which when used as directed is safe for adults and children over 2 months of age. Regarding the stinging insects such as yellow jackets, wasps and honey bees, avoid them if they are in your vicinity. If you do get stung by a honey bee (which is the only one of the stinging insects that leaves a stinger behind in your skin), remove it as quickly as possible by any means possible. It is now okay to just pull it out with your fingers and not waste time finding something with which to scrape it off. Immediately apply ice to the sting. When out in a woody or grassy area always check your entire body for ticks when you get home. If you find one, remove it as soon as possible by getting a pair of tweezers, grabbing the tick close to the skin and pulling it straight out.

Poison oak – The best protection is to recognize it and avoid it. If you come into contact with poison oak with your skin, clothing (including shoes and shoelaces), or garden tools, wash off immediately with soap and water. Poison oak oil must be washed off of your skin within a few minutes in order to avoid the dreaded rash. Remember, all parts of the poison oak plant contain the nasty oil, including the leaves, branches and roots.

Heat – Heat exhaustion is manifested by extreme sweating, fatigue and cramps. Heat stroke (a life-threatening condition) is manifested by lack of sweating, red hot skin, and a very high body temperature. Both conditions can usually be prevented by drinking plenty of liquids and avoiding direct sunlight as much as possible, especially between the hours of 11 a.m. and 4 p.m.

Water safety – 4,000 Americans drown every year, mostly men by a factor of four times more than women. Alcohol is frequently involved. Make sure the kids are supervised in the water every single minute. Watch out for rapid currents, rip tides, rocks, and always be aware of your surroundings. Boat injuries claim another 700 American lives a year. Drive your boat sensibly, have enough life preservers on board and do not drink alcohol and drive.

Bicycling – Wear a helmet! No matter how obvious this bit of advice is, I still see people riding without a helmet and I really cringe when I see children without this life-saving protection. Head injuries are often very serious, if not deadly, and are inexcusable for lack of a helmet. Be aware of your surroundings and be in control of your bike at all times. Don’t take foolish chances.

Eating – Summer picnics can be a common source of food poisoning manifested by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Food left out too long is the usual culprit. Handling uncooked chicken or eating undercooked chicken is also a common source of this illness.

Driving – We all drive more during the summer. The cheapest form of life insurance while you are in a car is the good old seat belt. Wear it! Make sure your children are in proper age-appropriate car seats. Handheld cell phone use while driving your car can be deadly and is now illegal. Don’t break the law.

Have a very enjoyable safe summer.

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Travel

Traveling soon? Here’s some travel advice.

First of all be prepared before you travel:

  • Educate yourself about your destination; what will the weather be like? How are the sanitary conditions? Are there any safety or security issues? Will you need an electrical plug adapter?
  • Visit your doctor before you leave if you have any health concerns or chronic medical conditions. Make this visit at least 5 to 6 weeks ahead of time as you might need immunizations.
  • Make sure you have an adequate supply of your medications and pack them in a carry on rather than in luggage.
  • Bring along a list of all your current medications, allergies, and blood type.

Important issues while traveling include:

  • Prevent blood clots associated with prolonged sitting, by exercising your calf muscles while seated and/or get up and walk around every couple of hours.
  • Minimize jet lag by staying well hydrated, avoiding alcohol and caffeine. Get plenty of rest prior to departing and, upon arrival to your destination, adjust to the local schedule as fast as possible and expose yourself to bright lights at the same time of day as before departure.
  • Prevent traveler’s diarrhea by washing hands frequently, avoiding precooked food like buffets, street vendor food and any water that is not bottled from a reputable source. Your doctor may want to prescribe antibiotics to take with you in case you come down with diarrhea.
  • Motion sickness can be lessened by focusing on the horizon and not reading. Sit in the back of the vehicle and don’t ride facing the rear.
  • Avoid sunburn by bringing enough of an appropriate sunscreen and limiting time in sun, especially the first few days.

Do not travel if:

  • You have recently had heart attack or stroke.
  • You have had recent surgery.
  • You have significant respiratory disease such as asthma or emphysema.
  • You have had recent injury to any vital organs.
  • You are ill with a bad cough, vomiting, diarrhea or a fever of 100 degrees or above.

Take along a travel health kit to include those things you commonly use at home for symptoms of illness or injury.

Do your best to deal with often encountered misfortunes such as missed flights, lost luggage, bad weather, disappointing accommodations, etc. You have no control over most of these things and allowing yourself to get stressed out can only make you feel more miserable. Look beyond these situations and imagine the joy that you will experience during your trip. Bon Voyage!

 

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Athlete drink

I’m often asked by patients how much water they need to drink each day. The Institute of Medicine has calculated that men need about 13 cups or three quarts of liquids and women need about nine cups or two quarts of liquids daily. We also ingest approximately 2 ½ cups, or 20 percent of our daily intake of liquids from food, especially fruits and vegetables. In addition, beverages that we commonly drink such as coffee, juice, milk and soda are composed mostly of water.

Water makes up 60 percent of our body weight. Every cell and system of our body depends on water. Lack of water causes dehydration, a condition that occurs when the body receives an inadequate amount of fluids, which in turn slows down and eventually shuts down vital bodily functions.

Our bodies constantly lose water from perspiring, breathing, urinating and having bowel movements.

Various factors determine just how much more water we may need to drink, such as:

– Environment — Hot weather, especially with high humidity, increases perspiration. Even in frigid weather, water is lost from our bodies when breathing during activities such as skiing or hiking.

– Exercise —Also increases perspiration. The more prolonged and intense the exercising, the greater the fluid loss is.

– Illness — Intense or prolonged vomiting and/or diarrhea can lead to life-threatening dehydration. This is an unfortunate cause of death in many developing countries.

– Pregnancy and breast feeding — Increases women’s fluids needs.

After hours of prolonged exercise with heavy sweating we lose electrolytes, especially salt. This is when drinking a sports drink is recommended because it will not only replace the lost water but also the depleted electrolytes. Electrolytes lost through sweat from mild to moderate exercise, can be replaced from the food we eat.

Some liquids can act as a diuretic, which means they cause you to urinate more liquid than you’ve taken in. Caffeine is often implicated, but is really a weak diuretic. Alcoholic beverages on the other hand, especially at higher quantities, can be very potent diuretics causing dehydration which is a major cause of a hangover.

A rough guide as to whether or not you are consuming enough water is to check your urine color. If it appears light yellow, like lemonade, you’re probably well-hydrated but if it is very dark yellow, like apple juice, you need to drink more water.

To keep your body healthy:

– Drink a glass of water or other low or non-calorie beverage with each meal and between each meal.

– Drink water before, during and after exercise.

Bottoms up!

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I’d like to make my annual plea for the liberal use of sunscreen to protect all of us, young and old from the damaging effects of the sun.

Please understand that the “healthy” bronze tan color that many people seek is actually how the skin demonstrates that it has been damaged by the sun.

The sun produces two types of invisible light. One is ultraviolet A, which is the ray that produces a tan but causes skin damage and aging — think wrinkles and “old age” skin spots. The other is ultraviolet B, which causes the uncomfortable sunburn. Both types can cause skin cancer, especially the deadly melanoma.

This year in the U.S., there will be about 76,000 new cases of melanoma, with about 9,000 deaths. These statistics can be reduced significantly by protecting our skin from the sun.

The damaging rays from the sun are most intense between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.

These are my suggestions:

– Always start the summer season with a new, fresh tube of sunscreen. Price has nothing to do with performance.

– Use a sunscreen with an SPF rating of at least 30. Higher than 50 is probably not necessary.

– A sunscreen should be labeled “broad spectrum,” protecting against both UVA and UVB, and should be water and sweat resistant.

– Use at least 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) for your entire body, and apply liberally to the face, ears and neck.

– Don’t overlook applying to feet, the back of the neck and bald spots.

– Apply at least 20 minutes before sun exposure and every two hours thereafter — more frequently if swimming or sweating profusely.

– Avoid using sunscreen sprays on children, as they can inhale the chemical ingredients. Use the lotion form only.

– Whenever possible, wear light-colored, tightly knit clothing and brimmed hats while in the sun.

– Avoid tanning salons, where damage similar to the effects of the sun can be done to the skin.

A sunscreen that has always been a favorite of mine, and one just recently highly recommended by Consumer Reports Magazine, is a brand called NO-AD. This product comes with an SPF of either 30 or 45 and is probably the cheapest sunscreen product on the shelves.

Enjoy your outdoor summer activities, but do yourselves — and especially your children — a favor by protecting your skin and theirs from both damage and cancer by properly using a good sunscreen product.

 

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For what seems to be a minor health problem, swimmer’s ear results in nearly 2.4 million doctor visits annually and costs our health care system $500 million a year. Swimmer’s ear is an inflammation of the ear canal, resulting from water entering the ear through swimming or bathing. This wet environment in the ear canal allows germs to multiply, thus leading to the painful infection. Warm temperatures, high humidity and more time spent in the water increase one’s risk of acquiring swimmer’s ear. That’s why this malady peaks during the summer swimming season, occurring more frequently in the months of June, July and August. Symptoms of swimmer’s ear include pain, tenderness, redness and swelling of the ear canal. Occasionally, there is a discharge from the ear. Though it’s a very painful condition, swimmer’s ear will almost always clear up completely, leaving no long-term pain or hearing loss. This infection is treated with a course of antibiotic ear drops for about a week. These are my recommendations to prevent swimmer’s ear:

    • Avoid cleaning the ear with cotton swabs, which can cause micro trauma to the ear canal, thus making it more susceptible to infection.
    • Dry the ears as thoroughly as possible after water exposure.
    • Commercial ear drops, available from pharmacies, can be bought to use in the ear after swimming to help prevent infection. As an alternative, a homemade solution can be used in place of the commercial one, by mixing equal parts rubbing alcohol and white vinegar and placing several drops in the ear canal after water exposure. The alcohol helps dry the ear, and the vinegar helps keep germs from growing. Those with ear tubes or a possible hole in the ear drum should not put any type of drops in their ears.

Have a safe and enjoyable summer.

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