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Bee Stings

Bee

Our most common local stinging insects are yellow jackets and bees. Yellow jackets are attracted to our delicious picnic food and are more aggressive than bees. They sting defensively when they feel that their nests are threatened. They also sting when stepped on, sat upon, or have in some way been provoked.  If one is being attacked by many bees or yellow jackets, it is best to vacate the area and run away as fast as possible.  These insects are capable of flying up to 15 miles per hour and pursuing for distances of 50 to 100 yards.  So don’t run too slow or stop too soon!

Wasps, including yellow jackets, can sting multiple times and leave no stingers in its victim. The  honey bee  sacrifices its life with its sting because it leaves the stinger and part of its abdomen with the venom sack attached to the skin of the victim.  This stinging apparatus continues injecting venom into its victim for up to one minute after the sting.  This is why the new accepted method to remove the stinger is just to pull it out with your finger tips as fast as possible.  Trying to take the time to find something to scrape off the stinger as was previously recommended just wastes time and allows more venom to be injected at the sting site.  Tests have proven that pinching out a stinger doesn’t force out more venom.

Stings are exceptionally painful. The best local treatment is to immediately place an ice pack on the sting site for up to several hours.  Home remedies such as applying pastes of meat tenderizer, clay, toothpaste, aspirin and baking soda, have no proven benefit.  Taking an antihistamine such as Benadryl by mouth, may help with itching.

A local toxic reaction to the venom occurring within hours to days after the sting may involve redness and swelling of just a small area around the sting or a much larger reaction often involving an entire arm or leg. As bad as this may seem, it is not serious and not life threatening and will resolve on its own in a matter of days.  These reactions are sometimes mistaken for a secondary infection but this is very rarely the case and antibiotics are hardly ever necessary.  A sting on the face may cause worrisome swelling but is not dangerous. A sting inside the mouth or throat however can be quite serious and needs emergency treatment promptly.

Almost every person who is stung will have at least a mild reaction around the sting site.  Less than one percent of the population will have a severe allergic reaction.

Serious allergic reactions may occur within minutes or up to several hours after the sting. Usually the more serious the reaction, the sooner the symptoms begin. For those who have suffered a serious reaction to a sting I would recommend a consultation with your doctor who may recommend allergy shots to make one less sensitive. An injectable adrenaline kit such as an “Epipen” may be prescribed to those who have had a very serious prior sting.

What to do when stung:

  • Pull stinger out as fast as possible by any method using fingers is now allowable.
  • Remove self from vicinity of stinging insects as fast and far as possible.
  • Apply ice compresses to sting.
  • Take Benadryl by mouth as soon as possible
  • Call 911 if you experience:
  • swollen tongue or throat.
  • difficulty swallowing.
  • tight breathing.
  • feeling faint.
  • severe hives.
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Travel Health

Family going on a trip traveling by airplane

Traveling soon? Here’s some travel advice.

First of all be prepared before you travel:

  • Educate yourself about your destination; what will the weather be like? How are the sanitary conditions? Are there any safety or security issues? Will you need an electrical plug adapter?
  • Visit your doctor before you leave if you have any health concerns or chronic medical conditions. Make this visit at least 5-6 weeks ahead of time as you might need immunizations.
  • Make sure you have an adequate supply of your medications and pack them in a carry on rather than in luggage.
  • Bring along a list of all your current medications, allergies, and blood type.

Important issues while traveling include:

  • Prevent blood clots associated with prolonged sitting, by exercising your calf muscles while seated and/or get up and walk around every couple of hours.
  • Minimize jet lag by staying well hydrated, avoiding alcohol and caffeine. Get plenty of rest prior to departing and upon arrival to your destination adjust to the local schedule as fast as possible and expose yourself to bright lights at the same time of day as before departure.
  • Prevent traveler’s diarrhea by washing hands frequently, avoiding precooked food such as buffets, street vendor food, and any water that is not bottled from a reputable source. Your doctor may want to prescribe antibiotics to take with you in case you come down with diarrhea.
  • Motion sickness can be lessened by focusing on the horizon and not reading. Sit in the back of the vehicle and don’t ride facing the rear.
  • Avoid sunburn by bringing enough of an appropriate sunscreen and limiting time in sun, especially the first few days.

Do not travel if:

  • You have recently had heart attack or stroke.
  • You have had recent surgery.
  • You have significant respiratory disease such as asthma or emphysema.
  • You have had recent injury to any vital organs.
  • You are ill with a bad cough, vomiting, diarrhea or a fever of 100 degrees or above.

Take along a travel health kit to include those things you commonly use at home for symptoms of illness or injury.

Do your best to deal with often encountered misfortunes such as missed flights, lost luggage, bad weather, disappointing accommodations, etc. You have no control over most of these things and allowing yourself to get stressed out can only make you feel more miserable. Look beyond these situations and imagine the joy that you will experience during your trip.      Bon Voyage!

Kids

I’d like to talk about several common activities involving our children and how to ensure safety and to avoid unnecessary injury.

Playground injuries, mostly from falls, account for over 200,000 emergency room visits per year. The highest risk group is 5-9 years of age. Young children need close adult supervision. Make sure that underneath the equipment there is an adequate shock absorbing material such as chipped wood or any type of rubber product. Also, the equipment needs to be inspected to ensure that it appears to be in good repair.

Bicycling (300,000 emergency visits a year) and skateboarding (30,000 visits) are the leading cause of head injury accidents in children. Proper safety for these activities includes adult supervision of the younger children, routine bicycle maintenance, and mandatory use of head protective helmets. These helmets must be proper to the activity and they must fit appropriately. But most importantly they must be worn!

Swimming accidents leading to drowning, are the second leading cause of injury death among children 14 years and younger. All pools must be adequately fenced in and have properly functioning gates. Injury can be avoided by not running around the pool, not jumping onto floating objects and proper use of a diving board. Again, adult supervision is paramount in preventing swim related activities.

In 1971, trampoline injuries lead to the NCAA eliminating the trampoline from sports competition. I’m sure it’s also why we don’t see this event in the Olympics. Trampoline injuries cause 80,000 emergency visits per year for children age five and younger. If you own a trampoline, do not allow a smaller child to be on a trampoline with a larger child, as the smaller one is much more likely to be injured.  In fact one should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and not allow more than one person on a trampoline at a time. Safety netting around the trampoline is essential to protect a child but is not fool proof to prevent injuries.  As with all the above activities, adult supervision is mandatory.

Summer Safety

Summer

SUMMER SAFETY

I’d like to share some of my thoughts on making for a very safe summer for everyone.

  • Sunscreen – Almost everyone who spends time out in the sun must wear sunscreen to block the harmful, damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays on our sensitive skin.  Use a sunscreen that offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays and has an SPF rating of at least 30. Apply it liberally and often (at least every two hours) especially when sweating or swimming.  Parents, protect your kid’s precious skin.
  • Insects – Beware of the many summer bugs lurking out there.  For mosquito protection use a repellant that contains DEET which when used as directed is safe for adults and children over 2 months of age. Regarding the stinging insects such as yellow jackets, wasps and honeybees, avoid them if they are in your vicinity. If you do get stung by a honey bee (which is the only one of the stinging insects that leaves a stinger behind in your skin), remove it as quickly as possible by any means possible.  It is now OK to just pull it out with your fingers and not waste time finding something with which to scrape it off.  Immediately apply ice to the sting. When out in a woody or grassy area always check your entire body for ticks when you get home. If you find one, remove it as soon as possible by getting a pair of tweezers, grabbing the tick  close to the skin and pulling it straight out.
  • Poison oak – The best protection is to recognize it and avoid it. If you come into contact with poison oak with your skin, clothing (including shoes and shoe laces), or garden tools, wash off immediately with soap and water.  Poison oak oil must be washed off of your skin with in a few minutes in order to avoid the dreaded rash. Remember, all parts of the poison oak plant contain the nasty oil, including the leaves, branches and roots.
  • Heat – Heat exhaustion is manifested by extreme sweating, fatigue and cramps. Heat stroke (a life threatening condition) is manifested by lack of sweating, red hot skin,  and a very high body temperature.  Both conditions can usually be prevented by drinking plenty of liquids and avoiding direct sun as much as possible especially between the hours of 11:00 AM and 4:00 PM.
  • Water safety – 4,000 Americans drown every year, mostly men by a factor of 4 times more than women.  Alcohol is frequently involved.  Make sure the kids are supervised in the water every single minute. Watch out for rapid currents, rip tides, rocks, and always be aware of your surroundings.  Boat injuries claim another 700 American lives a year.  Drive your boat sensibly, have enough life preservers on board and do not drink alcohol and drive.
  • Bicycling – WEAR A HELMET!  No matter how obvious this bit of advice is, I still see people riding without a helmet and I really cringe when I see children without this life saving protection. Head injuries are often very serious, if not deadly, and are inexcusable for lack of a helmet. Be aware of your surroundings and be in control of your bike at all times.  Don’t take foolish chances.
  • Eating – Summer picnics can be a common source of food poisoning manifested by vomiting and/or diarrhea..  Food left out too long is the usual culprit. Handling uncooked chicken or eating undercooked chicken is also a common source of this illness.
  • Driving – We all drive more during the summer.  The cheapest form of life insurance while you are in a car is the good old seal belt.  WEAR IT!  Make sure your children are in proper age appropriate car seats.  Hand held cell phone use while driving your car can be deadly and is now illegal. Don’t break the law.

Have a very enjoyable safe summer.

Heart Health

humanheart

You don’t have to spend a lot of money or take medication to maintain a healthy heart, just follow these guidelines:

  1. Quit smoking.  Smoking causes high blood pressure, decreases exercise tolerance, increases blood clotting, and double the odds of a heart attack.
  2. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Alcohol can increase the blood pressure and in higher doses can significantly weaken heart muscle.
  3. Exercise the heart as much as you would do for any other muscle to help strengthen it and keep it healthy. 30 minutes a day of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking five days a week, or 20 minutes of vigorous activity, such as jogging three days a week.  Try to make your exercise enjoyable (bring a friend or listen to music) and be persistent.
  4. Eat plenty of fiber such as fruits, nuts, whole grains and vegetables. Avoid saturated fats such as those found in most meats, chicken skin and many dairy products.  Instead, eat good fats such as olive oil, nuts, avocados and olives.
  5. Maintain a normal blood pressure. High blood pressure increases the work load on the heart and eventually will cause it to become thicker, stiffer and weaker.  This can lead to heart attacks and heart failure.
  6. Maintain as normal a weight as possible. As with hypertension, excess weight also increases the workload of the heart leading to the same end result of heart damage. Recent research shows that people who carry most of their weight around their middle (apple shaped as opposed to pear shaped), are at an even greater risk of heart disease.
  7. Controlling diabetes is important because up to three quarters of people with diabetes will die of some form of heart disease.
  8. Keep calm. Stress triggers the release of certain hormones that have an adverse effect on the heart muscle.  Studies have shown that clam and happy people have fewer heart attacks than those who are angry and discontent.  “Don’t worry – be happy”.
  9. Avoid salt as much as possible especially if you have high blood pressure. The recommended daily limit of salt is 2,300 mg. (one teaspoon). Try to avoid processed food and read food labels to steer clear of the worst offenders.
  10. Maintain levels of vitamin D. Research shows that people with low levels of vitamin D were twice as likely to have a heart attack as those who have adequate levels. The new 2010 recommended daily allowance (RDA) is 600 IU for those 1-70 years of age, and pregnant or breastfeeding women, and 800 IU for those over 71 years of age.

The above guidelines are tried and true methods of significantly improving your odds of decreasing heart disease and thereby promoting a healthier, happier, and longer life.

Colon Cancer

Colon.jpg

Cancer of the colon and rectum is the third leading cause of cancer in men and the fourth leading cause in women and is more commonly seen in the western industrialized world.

Risk factors can include: age (50 years and older), family history of colon cancer, a high fat diet, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake. Most colon cancers begin from polyps in the colon which usually start out as benign, but after time can become malignant. Therefore, timely diagnosis and removal of the polyp can help to prevent the development of colon cancer, and thereby significantly decrease the mortality of this mostly preventative cancer.

A colonoscopy exam is the current best method for detecting colon polyps. During this same procedure, the doctor can easily remove the polyp. Colonoscopy is essentially painless, is an outpatient procedure, and is a small price to pay for the possible early detection of colon cancer.

The more common symptoms of colon cancer include rectal bleeding and/or blood in the stool, a change in bowel habits, a feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely, weakness or fatigue, and unexplained weight loss. Any of these symptoms should get you to see your doctor as soon as possible.

Your doctor will most likely do a rectal exam (don’t be shy, as this is very important), perform a rapid chemical test of a sample of your stool to check for blood, take a blood sample to check for anemia, and most likely schedule a colonoscopy exam.

Surgery is the most common treatment for colon cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation are also often used depending on the extent and location of the cancer.

The bottom line is that colon cancer, if diagnosed early enough, has a very favorable prognosis.  If found too late after it has metastasized (spread) to other organs, it has a much poorer survival rate.

Talk to your doctor about colon cancer screening with colonoscopy and check with your health insurer about what is covered. You should begin screening if you are 50 years old or older, or if you are younger and have a family history of colon cancer.

See your doctor if you have any of the above mentioned symptoms, and if you do, don’t settle for anything less than a colonoscopy exam. Denial or delay can be a matter of life or death.

Youth Sports Injuries

football_2

Your child may be one of the estimated 50 million children participating in organized sports throughout the country. Sports programs are great in teaching the children about teamwork, competition, and providing much needed exercise.  However, statistics show that 1 in 3 of these children will be injured enough to miss a practice or a game and over a million are expected to visit an emergency room this year for a sports related injury with medical expenses costing over a billion dollars a year.

The majority of organized sports related injuries occur during practice rather than games. The top sports for injuries are football, basketball, soccer, baseball, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, gym, and track and field.

The most common injuries are to the head, face, fingers, knees, and ankles. The most common injury diagnoses are sprains/strains, fractures, contusions/abrasions, concussions, lacerations, and dislocations.

Concussions in particular, have received much attention recently and appropriately so. There is no longer any doubt about the short term and potential long term dangers of this injury, especially to the young developing brain. We now have very specific guidelines about when to allow a child with a head injury to return to games or practices, as well as how best to treat a child with a significant head injury/concussion.

Symptoms of a concussion are loss of consciousness no matter how brief, headache, vomiting, memory loss, and behavioral changes especially confusion and/or feeling “foggy”.  Any of these symptoms necessitate prompt medical attention.

There is also the issue of overuse injuries involving tendons, bones, and joints. This is due to playing the same sport and performing the same movements too often, too hard, and at too young an age without adequate rest and recovery.

Sports related injuries are inevitable, but there are some things that can be done to help prevent and treat injuries. Be sure your child is involved in a sports program that is properly maintained and adequately coached. Coaches should be certified in CPR and have a plan to respond to emergencies.

Make sure your child has and uses proper gear for a particular sport in order to reduce the chance of injury.

Encourage your child to perform warm up and cool down routines prior to and after sports participation. The warm up will make the body’s tissues warmer and more flexible and the cool down will loosen muscles that may have tightened during exercise.

Be sure your child has access to adequate liquids during exercise and while playing. Emphasize the importance of maintaining hydration to prevent dehydration and heat illness.

Encourage liberal use of sun screen to protect the skin from the sun’s damaging rays and help to prevent future melanoma.

Get professional help if you think your child’s injury is serious, such as when you suspect a fracture or dislocation of a joint, severe pain or swelling.

Statistics show that only 1 in 4 young athletes become elite players in high school and only 1 in 1600 high school athletes go on to professional status. Therefore the emphasis in youth sports should be in the enjoyment and long term involvement in exercise and sports. And remember to match your child’s abilities to the sport and not to push him or her too hard into a sport they may not like or be incapable of doing.