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Archive for the ‘Summer Safety’ Category

Bee Stings

Bee

Our most common local stinging insects are yellow jackets and bees. Yellow jackets are attracted to our delicious picnic food and are more aggressive than bees. They sting defensively when they feel that their nests are threatened. They also sting when stepped on, sat upon, or have in some way been provoked.  If one is being attacked by many bees or yellow jackets, it is best to vacate the area and run away as fast as possible.  These insects are capable of flying up to 15 miles per hour and pursuing for distances of 50 to 100 yards.  So don’t run too slow or stop too soon!

Wasps, including yellow jackets, can sting multiple times and leave no stingers in its victim. The  honey bee  sacrifices its life with its sting because it leaves the stinger and part of its abdomen with the venom sack attached to the skin of the victim.  This stinging apparatus continues injecting venom into its victim for up to one minute after the sting.  This is why the new accepted method to remove the stinger is just to pull it out with your finger tips as fast as possible.  Trying to take the time to find something to scrape off the stinger as was previously recommended just wastes time and allows more venom to be injected at the sting site.  Tests have proven that pinching out a stinger doesn’t force out more venom.

Stings are exceptionally painful. The best local treatment is to immediately place an ice pack on the sting site for up to several hours.  Home remedies such as applying pastes of meat tenderizer, clay, toothpaste, aspirin and baking soda, have no proven benefit.  Taking an antihistamine such as Benadryl by mouth, may help with itching.

A local toxic reaction to the venom occurring within hours to days after the sting may involve redness and swelling of just a small area around the sting or a much larger reaction often involving an entire arm or leg. As bad as this may seem, it is not serious and not life threatening and will resolve on its own in a matter of days.  These reactions are sometimes mistaken for a secondary infection but this is very rarely the case and antibiotics are hardly ever necessary.  A sting on the face may cause worrisome swelling but is not dangerous. A sting inside the mouth or throat however can be quite serious and needs emergency treatment promptly.

Almost every person who is stung will have at least a mild reaction around the sting site.  Less than one percent of the population will have a severe allergic reaction.

Serious allergic reactions may occur within minutes or up to several hours after the sting. Usually the more serious the reaction, the sooner the symptoms begin. For those who have suffered a serious reaction to a sting I would recommend a consultation with your doctor who may recommend allergy shots to make one less sensitive. An injectable adrenaline kit such as an “Epipen” may be prescribed to those who have had a very serious prior sting.

What to do when stung:

  • Pull stinger out as fast as possible by any method using fingers is now allowable.
  • Remove self from vicinity of stinging insects as fast and far as possible.
  • Apply ice compresses to sting.
  • Take Benadryl by mouth as soon as possible
  • Call 911 if you experience:
  • swollen tongue or throat.
  • difficulty swallowing.
  • tight breathing.
  • feeling faint.
  • severe hives.
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Kids

I’d like to talk about several common activities involving our children and how to ensure safety and to avoid unnecessary injury.

Playground injuries, mostly from falls, account for over 200,000 emergency room visits per year. The highest risk group is 5-9 years of age. Young children need close adult supervision. Make sure that underneath the equipment there is an adequate shock absorbing material such as chipped wood or any type of rubber product. Also, the equipment needs to be inspected to ensure that it appears to be in good repair.

Bicycling (300,000 emergency visits a year) and skateboarding (30,000 visits) are the leading cause of head injury accidents in children. Proper safety for these activities includes adult supervision of the younger children, routine bicycle maintenance, and mandatory use of head protective helmets. These helmets must be proper to the activity and they must fit appropriately. But most importantly they must be worn!

Swimming accidents leading to drowning, are the second leading cause of injury death among children 14 years and younger. All pools must be adequately fenced in and have properly functioning gates. Injury can be avoided by not running around the pool, not jumping onto floating objects and proper use of a diving board. Again, adult supervision is paramount in preventing swim related activities.

In 1971, trampoline injuries lead to the NCAA eliminating the trampoline from sports competition. I’m sure it’s also why we don’t see this event in the Olympics. Trampoline injuries cause 80,000 emergency visits per year for children age five and younger. If you own a trampoline, do not allow a smaller child to be on a trampoline with a larger child, as the smaller one is much more likely to be injured.  In fact one should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and not allow more than one person on a trampoline at a time. Safety netting around the trampoline is essential to protect a child but is not fool proof to prevent injuries.  As with all the above activities, adult supervision is mandatory.

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Summer

SUMMER SAFETY

I’d like to share some of my thoughts on making for a very safe summer for everyone.

  • Sunscreen – Almost everyone who spends time out in the sun must wear sunscreen to block the harmful, damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays on our sensitive skin.  Use a sunscreen that offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays and has an SPF rating of at least 30. Apply it liberally and often (at least every two hours) especially when sweating or swimming.  Parents, protect your kid’s precious skin.
  • Insects – Beware of the many summer bugs lurking out there.  For mosquito protection use a repellant that contains DEET which when used as directed is safe for adults and children over 2 months of age. Regarding the stinging insects such as yellow jackets, wasps and honeybees, avoid them if they are in your vicinity. If you do get stung by a honey bee (which is the only one of the stinging insects that leaves a stinger behind in your skin), remove it as quickly as possible by any means possible.  It is now OK to just pull it out with your fingers and not waste time finding something with which to scrape it off.  Immediately apply ice to the sting. When out in a woody or grassy area always check your entire body for ticks when you get home. If you find one, remove it as soon as possible by getting a pair of tweezers, grabbing the tick  close to the skin and pulling it straight out.
  • Poison oak – The best protection is to recognize it and avoid it. If you come into contact with poison oak with your skin, clothing (including shoes and shoe laces), or garden tools, wash off immediately with soap and water.  Poison oak oil must be washed off of your skin with in a few minutes in order to avoid the dreaded rash. Remember, all parts of the poison oak plant contain the nasty oil, including the leaves, branches and roots.
  • Heat – Heat exhaustion is manifested by extreme sweating, fatigue and cramps. Heat stroke (a life threatening condition) is manifested by lack of sweating, red hot skin,  and a very high body temperature.  Both conditions can usually be prevented by drinking plenty of liquids and avoiding direct sun as much as possible especially between the hours of 11:00 AM and 4:00 PM.
  • Water safety – 4,000 Americans drown every year, mostly men by a factor of 4 times more than women.  Alcohol is frequently involved.  Make sure the kids are supervised in the water every single minute. Watch out for rapid currents, rip tides, rocks, and always be aware of your surroundings.  Boat injuries claim another 700 American lives a year.  Drive your boat sensibly, have enough life preservers on board and do not drink alcohol and drive.
  • Bicycling – WEAR A HELMET!  No matter how obvious this bit of advice is, I still see people riding without a helmet and I really cringe when I see children without this life saving protection. Head injuries are often very serious, if not deadly, and are inexcusable for lack of a helmet. Be aware of your surroundings and be in control of your bike at all times.  Don’t take foolish chances.
  • Eating – Summer picnics can be a common source of food poisoning manifested by vomiting and/or diarrhea..  Food left out too long is the usual culprit. Handling uncooked chicken or eating undercooked chicken is also a common source of this illness.
  • Driving – We all drive more during the summer.  The cheapest form of life insurance while you are in a car is the good old seal belt.  WEAR IT!  Make sure your children are in proper age appropriate car seats.  Hand held cell phone use while driving your car can be deadly and is now illegal. Don’t break the law.

Have a very enjoyable safe summer.

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picnic

Summer is the time for picnics and social gatherings. This brings about an increased chance of food poisoning which is vomiting and/or diarrhea that comes about from eating contaminated food.  The most common form of food poisoning is from infectious organisms, such as bacteria and viruses.  When eating outside the home, these organisms can contaminate food at any point during its production,  processing, or serving. More commonly, contamination can also occur in the home. This happens because of food that is improperly handled, incorrectly cooked, or inadequately stored. The most common food culprits are chicken products, fish,  and shellfish. Another common source of food poisoning is from food that has been cooked and left unrefrigerated for too long, especially at buffets and outdoor picnics.

Steps to prevent food poisoning:

  1. Wash hands, utensils and food prep surfaces frequently and thoroughly with soap and water.
  2. Keep raw foods separate from ready to eat foods.
  3. Cook foods to a safe temperature.
  4. Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods promptly.
  5. “When in doubt-throw it out.”

Signs and symptoms of food poisoning may start within hours or up to one to two days after eating the contaminated food. The most common symptoms of food poisoning are nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps and diarrhea. The vomiting and diarrhea are the body’s way of eliminating the contaminated food.

There is no easy method to differentiate between food poisoning and common stomach flu other than if more than one person comes down with vomiting and/or diarrhea after eating a common meal, then food poisoning is the probable culprit.  Fortunately, the symptoms of either food poisoning, or of stomach flu, are usually mild and often resolve without treatment.

The best treatment for food poisoning is to let it run its course.  In most cases, once the body rids itself of the contaminated food, the symptoms improve. For this reason, anti diarrhea medicine is not recommended because it may slow down the healing process.  If diarrhea must be controlled because of travel plans or work responsibilities, then an over the counter medication, such as Immodium, may be helpful.

The main goal of treatment is to replace lost body fluids to prevent dehydration. This can be done by drinking lots of liquids, such as electrolyte drinks for adults or Pedialyte for children. A proven method to help prevent dehydration in spite of frequent vomiting is to take frequent small sips of clear liquids until vomiting stops

 

When to seek medical attention:

  1. Inability to keep any liquids down for more than 6-8 hours.
  2. No urine production for 6-8 hours.
  3. Vomiting or diarrhea lasting more than 2-3 days.
  4. Blood in vomit or diarrhea.
  5. Severe abdominal pain.

Have a safe and enjoyable summer. Bon appetit!

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Sunscreen

I’d like to make my annual plea for the liberal use of sunscreen to protect all of us — young and old — from the damaging effects of the sun.  Please understand that the “healthy” bronze tan color that many people seek is actually how the skin demonstrates that it has been damaged by the sun.

The sun produces two types of invisible light. One is ultraviolet A (UVA), which is the ray that produces a tan but causes skin damage and aging, (think wrinkles and “old age” skin spots). The other is ultraviolet B (UVB), which causes the uncomfortable sunburn.

Both types can cause skin cancer, especially the deadly melanoma. This year in the U.S. there will be approximately 76,000 new cases of melanoma with some 9,000 deaths. These statistics can be reduced significantly by protecting our skin from the sun.

The damaging rays from the sun are most intense between the hours of 10 AM and 4 PM.

These are my suggestions:

  • Always start the summer season with a new fresh tube of sunscreen; price has nothing to do with performance.
  • Use a sunscreen with an SFP rating of at least 30. Higher than 50 is probably not necessary.
  • A sunscreen should be labeled “broad spectrum” protecting against both UVA and UVB and be water/sweat resistant.
  • Use at least 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) for your entire body, and apply liberally to the face, ears, and neck.
  • Don’t overlook applying to feet, back of neck, and bald spots.
  •  Apply at least 20 minutes before sun exposure and every 2 hours thereafter and more frequently if swimming or sweating profusely.
  • Avoid using sunscreen sprays on children as they can inhale the chemical ingredients. Use the lotion form only.
  • Whenever possible, wear light colored tight knit clothing and brimmed hats while in the sun.
  • Avoid tanning salons where damage — similar to the effects of the sun — can be done to the skin.

A sunscreen that has always been a favorite of mine, and one just recently highly recommended by Consumer Reports Magazine, is a brand called “NO-AD.” This product comes with an SPF of either 30 or 45, and is one of the cheapest sun screen products on the shelves.

Enjoy your outdoor summer activities, but do yourselves and especially your children a favor, and protect your/their skin from both damage and cancer by properly using a good sunscreen product.

Read Full Post »

Kids

I’d like to talk about several common activities involving our children, how to ensure safety and to avoid unnecessary injury.

Playground injuries, mostly from falls, account for over 200,000 emergency room visits per year. The highest risk group is five to nine years of age. Young children need close adult supervision.

Make sure that underneath the equipment there is an adequate shock-absorbing material, such as chipped wood or any type of rubber product. Also, one needs to inspect the equipment to ensure that it is in good repair.

Bicycling (300,000 emergency visits a year) and skateboarding (30,000 visits) are the leading cause of head injury accidents in children. Proper safety for these activities includes adult supervision of younger children, routine bicycle maintenance, and mandatory use of head-protective helmets. These helmets must be proper to the activity and they must fit appropriately, but most importantly they must be worn!

Swimming accidents leading to drowning, and are the second leading cause of injury death among children 14 years and younger. All pools must be adequately fenced in and have properly functioning gates. Injury can be avoided by not running around the pool, not jumping onto floating objects, and proper use of a diving board. Again, adult supervision is paramount in preventing swim-related activities.

In 1971, trampoline injuries led to the NCAA eliminating the trampoline from sports competitions. I’m sure it’s also why we don’t see this event in the Olympics.

Trampoline injuries cause 80,000 emergency visits per year, for children age five and younger. If you own a trampoline, do not allow a smaller child to be on a trampoline with a larger child, as the smaller one is 14 times more likely to be injured.

In fact, one should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and not allow more than one person on a trampoline at a time. Safety netting around the trampoline is essential to protect a child but is not foolproof to prevent injuries.

As with all the above activities, adult supervision is mandatory.

Read Full Post »

Summer-S

Over the course of my emergency/urgent care career I’ve dealt with many different injuries and illnesses seen commonly during the summer months. I’d like to share some of my thoughts on making this a very safe summer for everyone.

Sunscreen – Almost everyone who spends time out in the sun must wear sunscreen to block the harmful, damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays on our sensitive skin. Use a sunscreen that offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays and has an SPF rating of at least 30. Apply it liberally and often (at least every two hours). Parents, protect your kids’ precious skin.

Insects – Beware of the many summer bugs lurking out there. For mosquito protection, use a repellant that contains DEET, which when used as directed is safe for adults and children over 2 months of age. Regarding the stinging insects such as yellow jackets, wasps and honey bees, avoid them if they are in your vicinity. If you do get stung by a honey bee (which is the only one of the stinging insects that leaves a stinger behind in your skin), remove it as quickly as possible by any means possible. It is now okay to just pull it out with your fingers and not waste time finding something with which to scrape it off. Immediately apply ice to the sting. When out in a woody or grassy area always check your entire body for ticks when you get home. If you find one, remove it as soon as possible by getting a pair of tweezers, grabbing the tick close to the skin and pulling it straight out.

Poison oak – The best protection is to recognize it and avoid it. If you come into contact with poison oak with your skin, clothing (including shoes and shoelaces), or garden tools, wash off immediately with soap and water. Poison oak oil must be washed off of your skin within a few minutes in order to avoid the dreaded rash. Remember, all parts of the poison oak plant contain the nasty oil, including the leaves, branches and roots.

Heat – Heat exhaustion is manifested by extreme sweating, fatigue and cramps. Heat stroke (a life-threatening condition) is manifested by lack of sweating, red hot skin, and a very high body temperature. Both conditions can usually be prevented by drinking plenty of liquids and avoiding direct sunlight as much as possible, especially between the hours of 11 a.m. and 4 p.m.

Water safety – 4,000 Americans drown every year, mostly men by a factor of four times more than women. Alcohol is frequently involved. Make sure the kids are supervised in the water every single minute. Watch out for rapid currents, rip tides, rocks, and always be aware of your surroundings. Boat injuries claim another 700 American lives a year. Drive your boat sensibly, have enough life preservers on board and do not drink alcohol and drive.

Bicycling – Wear a helmet! No matter how obvious this bit of advice is, I still see people riding without a helmet and I really cringe when I see children without this life-saving protection. Head injuries are often very serious, if not deadly, and are inexcusable for lack of a helmet. Be aware of your surroundings and be in control of your bike at all times. Don’t take foolish chances.

Eating – Summer picnics can be a common source of food poisoning manifested by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Food left out too long is the usual culprit. Handling uncooked chicken or eating undercooked chicken is also a common source of this illness.

Driving – We all drive more during the summer. The cheapest form of life insurance while you are in a car is the good old seat belt. Wear it! Make sure your children are in proper age-appropriate car seats. Handheld cell phone use while driving your car can be deadly and is now illegal. Don’t break the law.

Have a very enjoyable safe summer.

Read Full Post »

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